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lunes, 9 de diciembre de 2013


ingenieria_arte: Mechanical Excavation in Mining and Civil Industries
  
Mechanical Excavation in Mining anAutor: Bilgin,Nuh,Copur,Hanifi,Balci,Cemald Civil Industries


The secret to streamlined scheduling of mining and civil engineering projects is a solid understanding of the basic concepts of rock cutting mechanics. Comparing theoretical values with experimental and real-world results, Mechanical Excavation in Mining and Civil Industries thoroughly explains various rock cutting theories developed for chisel, conical, disc, and button cutters. The authors provide numerical examples on the effect of independent variables on dependent variables, as well as numerical and solved examples from real-life mining and civil engineering projects using equipment such as:
    Hard- and soft-ground tunnel boring machines (TBMs)
    Roadheaders
    Shearers
    Ploughs
    Chain saws
    Raise borers
    Impact hammers
    Large-diameter drill rigs
    Microtunnel boring machines
This book assists students and practicing engineers in selecting the most appropriate machinery for a specific job and predicting machine performance to ensure efficient extraction, and offers background information on rock cutting mechanics and different mechanical miners.
The secret to streamlined scheduling of mining and civil engineering projects is a solid understanding of the basic concepts of rock cutting mechanics. Comparing theoretical values with experimental and real-world results, Mechanical Excavation in Mining and Civil Industries thoroughly explains various rock cutting theories developed for chisel, conical, disc, and button cutters. The authors provide numerical examples on the effect of independent variables on dependent variables, as well as numerical and solved examples from real-life mining and civil engineering projects using equipment such as:
    Hard- and soft-ground tunnel boring machines (TBMs)
    Roadheaders
    Shearers
    Ploughs
    Chain saws
    Raise borers
    Impact hammers
    Large-diameter drill rigs
    Microtunnel boring machines
This book assists students and practicing engineers in selecting the most appropriate machinery for a specific job and predicting machine performance to ensure efficient extraction, and offers background information on rock cutting mechanics and different mechanical miners.
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Authors

1.Introduction

1.1 General
1.2 Historical Perspective on the Science of Rock-Cutting Mechanics and Mechanical Miners
1.3 Classification and Comparison of Fragmentation Methods
1.4 Classification of Mechanical Miners
1.5 Classification of Cutting Tools
1.6 Future of Science of Rock-Cutting Mechanics and Excavation Machines
References

2. Site Investigations for Mechanized Excavation Projects

2.1 Background
2.2 Stages of Site Investigations
2.2.1 Phase I: Feasibility
2.2.2 Phases II: Preliminary Design
2.2.3 Phases III: Final Design
2.2.4 Phase IV: Construction
2.3 Field Investigations
2.4Laboratory Investigations
2.5 Reporting of Site Investigations
2.5.1 Geotechnical Data Report
2.5.2 Geotechnical Baseline Report
2.5.3 Geotechnical Interpretive Report
2.5.4 Geotechnical Design Summary Report
References

3. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rocks, Soils, and Coals

3.1 Rocks
3.1.1 Uniaxial Compressive Strength
3.1.2 Indirect (Brazilian) Tensile Strength
3.1.3 PL Strength Index
3.1.4 Cerchar Abrasivity Index
3.1.5 NCB Cone Indenter Hardness Index
3.1.6 Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness
3.1.7 Shore Scleroscope Hardness
3.1.8 Density, Porosity, and Water Content
3.2 Soils
3.2.1 Grain Size Distribution
3.2.2 Clay Minerals
3.2.3 Permeability
3.3 Coal
3.3.1 Compressive Strength of Coal
3.3.2 Tensile Strength of Coal
3.3.3 PL Strength of Coal
3.3.4 Schmidt Hammer Values of Coal
3.3.5 CIH of Coal
3.3.6 Impact Strength Index of Coal
References

4. Rock-Cutting Tools and Theories

4.1 General
4.2 Rock-Breakage Mechanism by Mechanical Tools
4.3 Simple Chisel Cutters
4.4 Radial Cutters and Complex-Shaped Pick Cutters.
4.5 Conical Cutters or Point Attack Tools
4.5.1 Estimation of Conical Cutter Forces and Specific Energy Empirically from Rock Properties
4.5.2 Relative Efficiency of Chisel Cutters against Conical Cutters
4.6 V-Type Disk Cutters
4.7 Constant-Cross-Section Disk Cutters
4.7.1 Model Proposed by Wijk
4.7.2 Model Proposed by Rostami–Ozdemir
4.8 Efficiency of Chisel Cutters against Disk Cutters
4.9 Practical Considerations for an Efficient Rock-Cutting Process
4.10 Practical Examples of Using Cutting Theories for Prediction of Tool Forces, Specific Energy
4.10.1 Numerical Example 1
4.10.1.1 Solution
4.10.1.2 For Chisel Picks
4.10.1.3 For Conical Cutters
4.10.2 Numerical Example 2
4.10.2.1 For Chisel Picks
4.10.2.2 For Conical Cutters
4.10.2.3 Practical Implication
4.10.3 Numerical Example 3
4.10.3.1 Solution
4.10.4 Numerical Example 4
4.10.4.1 Solution
4.10.5 Numerical Example 5
4.10.5.1 Solution
References

5. Laboratory Rock-Cutting Tests

5.1 General Introduction on Performance Prediction Methods for Mechanical Miners
5.2 Rock-Cutting Experiments
5.2.1 Small-Scale Linear Rock-Cutting Tests (Core-Cutting Tests)
5.2.2 Full-Scale Linear Rock-Cutting Tests
5.2.3 Portable Linear Rock-Cutting Tests
5.2.4 Cutting Tests with a Horizontal Drill Rig
5.3 Numerical Examples
5.3.1 Numerical Example for a Surface Miner
5.3.1.1 Solution of Numerical Example 5.3.1.
5.3.2 Numerical Example for a Trench-Cutter
5.3.2.1 Solution of Numerical Example 5.3.2
References

6. Wear of Cutting Tools

6.1Metallurgical Properties of Tungsten Carbide Tools Affecting Wear Properties
6.2 Some Theoretical Concepts on the Wear of Chisel Cuttersand Point Attack Tools
6.3Laboratory Cutting Experiments with Chisel Cutters for Wear Studies
6.5 Abrasivity of Rocks Affecting Cutter Wear
6.5.1 Schimazek Abrasivity Index
6.5.2 Cerchar Abrasivity Index
6.5.3 NTNU Abrasivity Index
6.5.4 Methodology for Estimating the Abrasiveness of Soils for TBM Tunneling
6.5.4.1 New NTNU Soil Abrasion Test
6.5.4.2 Soil Abrasivity Test Developed by Rostami et al. (2012)
6.6 Field Studies on the Wear of Conical Cutters and a Guide for Cutter Selection
6.7 Numerical Examples
6.7.1 Numerical Example 1
6.7.1.1 Solution
6.7.2 Numerical Example 2
6.7.2.1 Solution
References

7. Roadheaders

7.1 General
7.2 Advantages, Application Areas, and Limits of Roadheaders
7.3 Basic Units and Mechanical Structure of Roadheaders
7.4 Roadheader Cutterheads, Weights, and Technical
Specifications
7.5 Cutting Tools Used on Roadheaders
7.6 Some Operational Features of Roadheaders
7.7 Roadheader Performance
7.8 Numerical Examples on Predicting Performance of Roadheaders
7.8.1 Numerical Example on Roadheader Selection and Performance Prediction
7.8.1.1 Solution of Numerical Example 7.8.1
7.8.2Numerical Example on Predicting Performance of a Transverse Roadheader Excavating Evaporitic Rocks
7.8.2.1 Solution of Numerical Example 7.8.2
References

8. Impact Hammers


8.1 Background
8.2 Working Principles and Operational Features
8.3 Classification and Technical Features
8.4 Performance Prediction and Practical Examples for Impact Hammers
8.4.1 A Numerical Example to Calculate Hammer Efficiency
8.4.1.1 Solution
8.4.2 A Numerical Example to Calculate Impact Hammer Performance
8.4.3 A Numerical Example to Select a Proper Hydraulic Hammer and Excavator for a Specific Job
8.4.3.1 Solution
8.4.4 A Numerical Example to Select the Proper Hydraulic Hammer and Excavator for a Specific Job
8.4.4.1 Solution
References

9. Hard Rock TBMs

9.1 Classification, Working Principles, and Operational Features
9.1.1 Open-Type (Open Gripper, Kelly Beam, or Main Beam) TBMs
9.1.2 Single-Shield TBMs
9.1.3 Double-Shield TBMs
9.1.4 Single-Shield TBMs Working in Open and Closed Modes (EPB Mode)
9.2 Technical Characteristics of Hard Rock TBMs
9.3 Performance Predictions for Hard Rock TBMs and Practical Examples
9.3.1 Colorado School of Mines Method
9.3.2 Model Developed by Ernst Buchi
9.3.3 NTNU (Trondheim Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Method
9.4 Tunneling in Difficult Ground with Hard Rock TBMs
9.5 Numerical Examples
9.5.1 A Numerical Example on Using Statistically Derived Equation for TBM Performance Prediction
9.5.1.1 Solution
9.5.2 A Numerical Example on Using Statistically Derived Equation for TBM Performance Prediction for Squeezing Ground
9.5.2.1 Solution
9.5.3 A Numerical Example on Using SE Concept for TBM Performance Prediction
9.5.3.1 Solution
9.5.3.2 Solution for the Same Problem Given in Section 9.5.3 If the TBM Is Worked in Open Mode
9.5.4 Numerical example Cutting Tests to Calculate Daily Advance Rates of TBM
9.5.4.1 Solution
References

10. Soft Ground Tunnel Boring Machines

10.1 General Classification of Soft Ground TBMs
10.2 Compressed Air Shields
10.3 Partly Open Face (Blind) Shields
10.4 Slurry Pressure Balance TBMs and Slurry Conditioning
10.5 Earth Pressure Balance TBMs and Soil/Ground/Muck
Conditioning
10.6 Surface Settlements on Soft Grounds
10.7 Numerical Examples Related to Soft Ground TBMs
10.7.1 A Numerical Example on Estimation of Global Face Stability
10.7.1.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.1
10.7.2 Numerical Example on Estimation of Theoretical Earth Pressures
10.7.2.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.2
10.7.3Numerical Example on Estimation of Excavation Performance
10.7.3.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.3
10.7.4 A Numerical Example on Estimations of TBM Thrust, Cutterhead Torque, and Power
10.7.4.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.4
10.7.5 A Numerical Example on Slurry Conditioning for SPB TBMs
10.7.5.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.5
10.7.6 Numerical Example on the Estimation of the Torque Requirement of a Half-Filled Cutterhead Chamber
10.7.6.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.6
10.7.7 Numerical Example on Soil Conditioning for EPB-TBMs
10.7.7.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.7
10.7.8 A Numerical Example on Surface Settlement Predictions
10.7.8.1 Solution of Numerical Example 10.7.8
References

11. Microtunnel Boring Machines and Jacking Forces

11.1 General.
11.2 Pipe Line Installation Methods
11.3 Some Design Considerations and Planning in Microtunneling
11.4 Performance Predictions for MTBMs
11.5 Numerical Examples on Estimation of Jacking Forces
11.5.1 Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of Chapman and Ichioka
11.5.1.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.1
11.5.2Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of Bennett and Cording for Sand
11.5.2.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.2
11.5.3Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of Bennett and Cording for Clay
11.5.3.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.3
11.5.4 Jacking Force Estimation by Using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for Dry Formation
11.5.4.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.4
11.5.5 Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of Shimada et al.
11.5.5.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.5
11.5.6Jacking Force Estimation by Using Theoretical
Methods
11.5.6.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.6
11.5.7 Jacking Force Estimation by Using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1998) for Wet Formation
11.5.7.1
Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.7
11.5.8 Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of Roark and Young
11.5.9 Jacking Force Estimation by Using the Method of O’Reily and Rogers
11.5.9.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.9
11.5.10 Numerical Example on Positioning of IntermediateJacking Stations
11.5.10.1 Solution of Numerical Example 11.5.10
References
12. Shaft and Raise Boring Machines
12.1 Background
12.2 Classification and Working Principles
12.2.1 Raise Boring
12.2.2 Down Reaming
12.2.3 Boxhole
12.2.4 Drilling Blind Shafts with V Moles
12.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Raise Boring
12.4 Design and Technical Features
12.5 Performance Predictions of Raise Boring Machines
12.6 Numerical Examples
12.6.1 Numerical Example 1: Application of (V)-Type Disk Cutters
12.6.1.1 Solution
12.6.2 Numerical Example 2: Application of (CSS) Disk Cutters
12.6.3 Numerical Example 3: Application of Tungsten Carbide Bit Cutters
12.6.3.1 Solution
12.6.4 Critical Remarks to the Results of the Numerical References
Contents

13. Large-Diameter Drill Rigs

13.1 Large-Diameter Drill Rigs for Pile Construction in Civil Engineering
13.1.1 Background and Technical Features
13.1.2 Working Principles and Operations: A Typical Example in Istanbul
13.1.3 A Numerical Example of the Large-Section Drills Equipped with Conical Cutters
13.1.3.1 Solution
13.2 Large-Diameter Drill Rigs Used in Mining Industry and Possibilities of Using Drilling Specific Energy for TBM Selection
13.2.1 Background
13.2.2 Concept of Drilling Specific Energy and Drilling Tests Carried Out in TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises)
13.2.3 Concept of Rock-Cutting Specific Energy and the Effect of Rock Compressive Strength on Specific Energy
13.2.4 Numerical Example to Predict TBM Performance from Large-Diameter Drilling Results
13.2.4.1 Solution
References

14. Mechanical Excavation in Coal Mines

14.1 Background
14.2 Shearers
14.3 Ploughs
14.4 Room and Pillar Mining Method and Continuous Miners
14.5 Performance Prediction and Numerical Examples
14.5.1 Numerical Example for Continuous Miners
14.5.1.1 Solution
14.5.2 Numerical Example for Plough
14.5.2.1 Solution
14.5.3 Application of Linear Cutting Test Results to Preliminary Calculation of Power Requirement of a Shearer–Loader
14.5.3.1 Solution
References

15. Chain Saw Machines

15.1 Background
15.2 Technical Features of Chain Saw Machines
15.3 Design of Chain Saw Machines
15.4 Performance Prediction of Chain Saw Machines
15.5 Numerical Examples on the Performance Prediction of Chain Saw Machines
15.5.1 Numerical Example on Deterministic Performance Prediction of Chain Saw Machines
15.5.1.1 Solution of Numerical Example 15.5.1
15.5.2 Numerical Example on Empirical Performance Prediction of Chain Saw Machines
15.5.2.1 Solution of Numerical Example 15.5.2
References
16. Emerging Mechanical Excavation Technologies
16.1Background
16.2 Developments in Cutting Tool Technology
16.2.1 Minidisk Cutters
16.2.2 Dual-Property Tungsten Carbide Technology
16.2.3 Polycrystalline Diamond Composite Tool Technology
16.2.4 Smart*Cut Technology
16.2.5 Undercutting Disk Cutter Technology
16.2.6 Oscillating (Activated) Undercutting Disk CutterTechnology
16.3 Emerging Mobile Machines for Hard Rock Excavation
16.3.1 Robbins Mobile Miner
16.3.2 Aker–Wirth Mobile Tunnel Miner
16.3.3 Hard Rock Roadheaders
16.3.4 Sandvik Reef (Narrow Vein) Miner
16.3.5 Other Developments on Hard Rock Excavation Machines and Systems
16.4 Developments in Blind Shaft Excavation
16.5 Water-Jet-Assisted Mechanical Excavation
References
Index


  • Páginas: 388
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2013
  • PRECIO   142,00 Euros
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