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jueves, 14 de febrero de 2013


Methods, Techniques and Equipment
Ratan Raj Tatiya

Excavation is a multi-disciplinary activity in the areas of civil, construction and mining engineering. The excavation industry is booming because of the yearly creation of thousands of kilometers of tunnels, many mine openings and millions of cubic meters of large underground excavations for transportation, mineral mining, oil and gas storage, hydroelectric power station construction, defense facilities and for the disposal of hazardous waste.
Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment provides a comprehensive text on the latest technologies and developments in excavation for any type of surface or underground excavation. In the first few chapters, unit operations are covered, including drilling, explosives and blasting, mucking, haulage, hoisting, supports and reinforcement. Subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations, like tunneling, raising, sinking, drifting, stoping, quarrying and surface-mining, underground mining, pillar blasting and liquidation. In addition, the design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Special attention is paid to the construction of surface and subsurface excavations, including caverns and to new methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis. For practical illustration, the final chapter contains case studies dealing with heavy underground blasting during pillar recoveries.
This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, removing obsolete information and including latest trends and best practices as well as questions at the end of each chapter. It is now fully up-to-date and even more appealing to students and those with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations. As such, this book is particularly suited to students in earth sciences, geology and in civil, mining and construction engineering.

Conversion tables

Excavations and their classification
Surface excavations
Underground excavations
Importance of minerals and brief history to recover them
Current status of mineral industry
Excavation technologies/systems – development & growth
Unique features of mineral industry
Brief history civil work excavations including tunneling
Current scenario
Tomorrow’s mine & civil excavations
Way forward

Rocks and Minerals

Formation process and classification
Rock cycle & type of deposits
Texture, grain size and shape
The concepts of mineral resources and reserves; mineral inventory, cutoff grade, and ores
Geological structures
Physical & mechanical characteristics of ores and rocks
Some other properties/characteristics
Related terms – rock and mineral deposits

Prospecting, Exploration & Site Investigations

Prospecting and exploration
Phases of prospecting and exploration program
Site investigations for civil constructions, or any excavation project including tunnels and caverns
Rocks and ground characterization
Rock quality designation (rqd)


Introduction – unit operations
Primary rock breaking
Operating components of the drilling system
Mechanics of rock penetration
Rock drill classification
Motive power of rock drills
Drilling accessories
Selection of drill
Drilling postures

Explosives and Blasting

Introduction – explosives
Detonation and deflagration
Common ingredients of explosives
Classification of explosives
Blasting properties of explosives
Explosive initiating devices/systems
Explosive charging techniques
Blasting accessories
Firing systems – classification
Ground blasting techniques
Secondary breaking
Use, handling, transportation and storage of explosives
Explosive selection
Blasting theory
Drilling and blasting performance

Mucking, Casting and Excavation

Muck characteristics
Underground mucking units
ARM loaders
Mucking in tunnels
Surface – excavation, loading and casting units
Wheel loaders – front end loaders
Hydraulic excavators
Multi bucket excavators
Bucket chain excavator (BCE)
Bucket wheel excavator (BWE)
Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator
Total cost calculations
Governing factors for the selection of mucking equipment

Transportation – Haulage and Hoisting

Haulage system
Trackless or tyred haulage system
Conveyor system
Belt conveyors
Hoisting or winding system
Aerial ropeway
Track and mine car


Introduction – necessity of supports
Classification of supports
Self support by in-place (in-situ) rock
Selection of support
Effect of ore extraction upon displacement of country rock and surface

Drives and Tunnels (Conventional Methods)

Introduction – function of drives and tunnels
Drivage techniques (for drives and tunnels)
Drivage techniques with the aid of explosives
Muck disposal and handling (mucking and transportation)
Working cycle (including auxiliary operations)
Driving large sized drives/tunnels in tough rocks
Conventional tunneling methods: tunneling through the soft ground and soft rocks
Supports for tunnels and mine openings
Driving without aid of explosives
Pre-cursor or prior to driving civil tunnels

Tunneling By Roadheaders and Impact Hammers

Tunneling by boom mounted roadheaders
Classification boom mounted roadheaders
Milling or longitudinal (augur) roadheaders
Classification based on weight
Advantages of roadheaders
Important developments
Procedure of driving by the heading machines
Auxiliary operations
Hydraulic impact hammer tunneling
Excavation procedure and cycle of operations
Merit and limitations
Partial face rotary rock tunneling machines
Excavator with multiple tool miner (MTM) attachments

Full-Face Tunnel Borers (Tbms) & Special Methods

Tunneling methods and procedures
Full face tunneling machines
Mini tunnel borers
Boring system
Rock cutting tools and their types
TBM Performance
Size of unit and its overall length including its trailing gear
Backup system/activities
tbms for soft ground/formations
Phases of tunneling project
Future technology
New Austrian tunneling method (NATM)
Tunneling through the abnormal or difficult ground, using special methods
Cut and cover method of tunneling
Submerged tubes/tunnels


Economical studies
Mine design elements
Dividing property for the purpose of underground mining
Mine planning duration
Mine development – Introduction
Access to deposit or means of mine access
System – opening up a deposit
Positioning and developing the main haulage levels
Size and shape of mine openings and tunnels
Pit top layouts
Pit bottom layouts
Structures concerning pit bottom layouts

Excavations in Upward Direction – Raising

Raises’ applications in civil and construction industries
Classification – types of raises for mines
Raise driving techniques
Conventional raising method: open raising
Conventional raising method: raising by compartment
Raising by the use of mechanical climbers: jora hoist
Raising by mechanical climbers: alimak raise climber
Blasthole raising method: long-hole raising
Blasthole raising method: drop raising
Raising by the application of raise borers
Raise boring in a package – borpak
Ore pass/waste rock pass

Shaft Sinking

Preparatory work required
Sinking appliances, equipment and services
Sinking methods and procedure
Reaching up to the rock head
Sinking through the rock
Special methods of shaft sinking
Piling system
Caisson method
Special methods by temporary or permanent isolation of water
The freezing process
Shaft drilling and boring
Safety in sinking shafts

Large Sub-Surface Excavations

Powerhouse caverns
Oil storage caverns
Salt cavern storage
Aquifer storage
Exhibition hall caverns
Underground chambers in mines
Equipment and services selection

Underground Mining/Stoping Methods

Open stoping methods
Supported stoping methods
Caving methods
Common aspects
Mine liquidation
Planning for mine closure

Surface Excavations

Introduction – surface mining methods
Open pit mining
Haul roads
Ramp and its gradient
Open cast mining/strip mining
Quarrying methods/techniques
The diamond belt saw
Earth movers
Subject index

Hazards, Occupational Health and Safety (Ohs), Environment and Loss Prevention

Excavations’ Potential Hazards
Occupational Health and Surveillance
Environment Degradation and Mitigation Measures
Loss Prevention
Way Forward

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development (SD) in Mining
Stakeholders and Sustainable Development
Scenarios Influencing Mining Industry
Is Mining Industry Equipped to Meet Challenges?
Proposed strategy to run mines economically viable (beneficial) i.e. implementation of cost-effective systems and best practices.
Measures for SD through improvements environmentally, socially and ethically
Legal compliances and Mining Policy
Quality of Human Resources
The Ultimate Goal - Way Forward
Way forward: Proposed milestones / strategy

Observaciones 2013
Medidas 17x24
Paginas  846
Precio  140,00     A la venta en Marzo 2013