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martes, 11 de septiembre de 2012

Robert L. Sogge

A practical guide to analyzing soil and structural systems using Excel spreadsheets and VBA macro programs (in open-source code) that are provided on the accompanying CD.
This book gives readers the tools to understand the methods such as finite element analysis used to analyze common problems in structural engineering, foundation engineering and soil-structure interaction. The book has value just based on its instructions in Excel spreadsheets and the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro programming language alone. By providing an expert system and guidance to the reader in its use through examples, the author shows the methods and simple modelling techniques that demystify soil-structure applications by presenting the essentials in a clear and concise way.
The book also addresses some of the disappointments in geo-engineering by providing tools to calculate deformations, implement soil-structure interaction procedures, provide simple computer solutions, while incorporating proper soil and rock properties in the analyses.
  • Can be used by students or practicing professional engineers as a hands-on self-study guide as prewritten complete Excel spreadsheets and VBA programs are applied to many different Civil Engineering example problems
  • VBA code techniques and its use and programming are explained but a working knowledge is not required to use the spreadsheet and programs provided
  • Computations are performed using VBA macro programs getting input data from worksheet cells (whereby the spreadsheet functions as a pre-processor) or from input data files

1 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet
1.1 History of Spreadsheet Development
1.2 Excel 2010
1.2.1 File Conversion and Compatibility
1.3 Transmitting Cell Values Not Formulas
1.4 Accuracy
1.5 Saving
1.6 Implementation of Excel Features
1.6.1 General Tips
1.6.2 Fonts
1.6.3 =IF Statements
1.6.4 Naming Cells
1.6.5 Functions
1.6.6 Drawing
1.6.7 Charting
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Further Readings
2 Microsoft VBA Programming Language
2.1 History of the BASIC Computer Language
2.1.1 Stage I – BASIC with CP/M and DOS
2.1.2 Stage II – Visual BASIC with Windows
2.1.3 Stage III – VBA and Excel with Windows
2.2 Justification for Using Excel with VBA Macros
2.3 Difference between aWorkbook and a VBA Macro
2.4 VBA Macro Nomenclature
2.5 Generating a Procedure
2.6 Security Level Required to Open VBA Macros
2.7 VBA Code Statements that Differ from Previous BASIC Versions
2.8 Implementation of VBA Macro Programming
2.8.1 Type and Size Declaration of Variables for Subs and Functions
2.8.2 Integer Variable
2.8.3 Floating Point Variables
2.8.4 Double-Precision Variables
2.8.5 Currency Variables
2.8.6 String Variables
2.8.7 Variant Variables
2.8.8 Declaring Data Types in Sub or Function Procedures
2.8.9 Dimensioning Variables
2.8.10 Option Explicit Statement
2.8.11 ReDim Statement
2.8.12 Sub Procedure
2.8.13 Function Procedure
2.9 Inputting Data to a VBA Procedure
2.9.1 In Worksheet Cells
2.9.2 From a Sequential Data File
2.9.3 From Input Boxes
2.10 Output Data from a VBA Procedure
2.10.1 Output toWorksheet Cells
2.10.2 Output to a Sequential Data File
2.11 Running a Macro
2.11.1 Using a Start Button
2.11.2 Alternative Start Methods
2.12 Code Debugging
2.13 Charting in a Workshet
2.14 Line Plots in a Worksheet
2.15 Macro Sub Program Showing Output toWorksheet
2.16 Computer Hardware/Software Requirements
2.16.1 Memory Requirements
2.16.2 Processing Speed
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Further Readings
3 Finite Element Method – The Theory
3.1 Theory
3.2 Developing the Element Stiffness Matrix
3.2.1 Equilibrium
3.2.2 Force–Deformation (Stress–Strain)
3.2.3 Deformation Compatibility
3.3 Creating the Global Stiffness Matrix by Assembling Element Stiffnesses
3.4 Solving Simultaneous Equations for Displacements
3.5 Element Displacements and Forces
3.6 Flowchart of Steps
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4 Finite Element Analysis VBA Program PFrame
4.1 Program PFrame – Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of Beam–Bar Structural Systems
4.2 Creating an Input Data Worksheet
4.3 Input Data
4.3.1 Member Axis Orientation and Conversion of Moment of Inertia
4.4 Joint Numbering and Dimensions
4.5 Load Application
4.5.1 Applied Joint Loads
4.5.2 Applied Member Loads
4.5.3 Applied FEFs
4.6 Imposed Joint Displacements
4.7 Unstable or Improperly Supported Configurations
4.8 Running Program PFrame
4.9 Output Data
4.10 Alternate Solution Approach to Macro Program PFrame
4.11 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet & VBA Macro Program Construction
5 Beams
5.1 Beam Member Types
5.2 Bar Members as Pinned-End Beams
5.3 Moment of Inertia Conversion for Different Member Axis Orientation
5.4 Load Application
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6 Frames
6.1 Analysis of Frames
6.2 Rigid Joints
6.3 Joint Numbering
6.4 Pinned-End Beam
6.5 Supports
6.5.1 Inclined or Skewed
6.5.2 Elastic 74
6.5.3 Imposed Support Displacements
6.6 Varying EI of Members Comprising a Frame
6.7 Stability – The P– Effect
6.8 Load Case Combinations of Load Groups
6.9 Interior Member Forces
6.10 Examples
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7 Trusses
7.1 Theory for Bar Members
7.2 Analysis of Bar Assemblage
7.3 Load Application
7.4 Initial Member Length Changes
7.5 Support Displacements
8 Reinforced Concrete
8.1 Concrete and Reinforcing Steel Properties
8.2 Design Capacity and Reinforcing Requirements
8.2.1 Shear Design Capacity
8.2.2 Moment Design Capacity
8.2.3 Beam–Column Capacity
8.2.4 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement (AASHTO 5.10.8) 87
8.2.5 Reinforcement to Control Cracking
8.3 Strength Properties for a Soil–Structure Interaction Analyses
8.4 Cracked-Section Concrete Properties
8.5 Excel Workbooks
8.5.1 Workbook Reinf Concrete
8.5.2 Workbook Beam-LFD
8.5.3 Workbook Beam-Col ID
8.5.4 Workbook PMEIX-VBA
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8.6 Notation
References 93
9 Soil Classification
9.1 Field Geotechnical Processes
9.1.1 Soil/Rock Exploration
9.1.2 Soil/Rock Sampling
9.1.3 Field Testing
9.2 Soil Description
9.2.1 Color 100
9.2.2 Basic Soil Type
9.2.3 Modifying Terms
9.2.4 Special Soil Types
9.3 Field and Laboratory Tests for Soil Identification
9.3.1 Field Tests for Soil Identification
9.3.2 Laboratory Testing for Soil Identification
9.4 Soil Classification Systems
9.4.1 Textural Classification
9.4.2 Engineering Classification
9.5 Excel Workbooks and VBA Programs
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9.6 Soil Mechanics Symbol Nomenclature 1
10 Soil Strength Properties
10.1 Discrete and Elastic Finite Element Models
10.2 General Elasticity Equations Relating Stress and Strain
10.2.1 Alternative Constitutive Equation Formulation 1
10.2.2 Two-Dimensional Plane-Stress and Plane-Strain Constitutive Equations
10.3 Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio
10.3.1 The Stress–Strain Curve
10.3.2 Failure Strength Related to Confining Pressure Dependency
10.3.3 Elastic Modulus – Relation to Pore Water Pressure and Water Content
10.3.4 Elastic Modulus for Repeated Loading
10.3.5 Elastic Modulus for Dynamic Loading
10.3.6 Analytical Expressions for Elastic Modulus
10.3.7 Secant and Tangent Modulus Values for Iterative and Incremental Analysis
10.3.8 General and Local Failure Conditions
10.3.9 The Relation between ν, φ, and Ko
10.3.10 Analytical Representation of Poisson’s Ratio
10.3.11 Typical E and ν Values
10.4 Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction
10.4.1 Terzaghi Relation for kv and kh
10.4.2 Bowles Relation for kh
10.4.3 E and kh Developed from Lateral Wall Movement
10.4.4 Relation between kv and E
10.5 Mathematical Descriptions of Curves Using Program Curve Fit References
11 Stresses in an Elastic Half-Space
11.1 Closed-Form Elasticity Solutions
11.2 Lateral Stresses against a Wall Restrained from Movement due to Point, Line, and Strip Loading
11.3 Boussinesq Equation
11.3.1 Assumptions
11.4 Westergaard Equation
11.5 Mindlin Equation
11.6 Chart Solutions
11.7 Excel Workbook – Lat&VertStress
11.8 VBA Program HSpace
11.9 Significant Programming Aspects
11.10 VBA Program HSpace – Program Documentation
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12 Lateral Soil Pressures and Retaining Walls
12.1 Lateral Earth Pressure – Sloped Backfill Acting on Inclined Retaining Wall
12.2 Slope Stability
12.4 Retaining Wall Movements
12.5 Retaining Walls – Factor of Safety
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13 Shallow and Deep Foundation Vertical Bearing Capacity
13.1 Shallow Foundations
13.2 Vertical Bearing Stress Capacity
13.3 Soil Pressure Distribution
13.3.1 Smooth and Rough Footing Bottoms
13.3.2 Eccentric Loadings
13.3.3 Footing Flexibility
13.4 Settlement-Based Bearing Capacity
13.5 Excel Workbooks
13.6 Deep Foundations
13.7 Capacities Based on Displacement Limits
13.7.1 End Bearing
13.7.2 Skin Resistance
13.7.3 Combined Capacity and Factor of Safety
13.8 Capacities Based on Stress Limits
13.8.1 End Bearing
13.8.2 Skin Resistance
13.8.3 Bearing Capacity in Terms of Blow Counts
13.8.4 Reduction in Capacity Based on Spacing
13.9 Limitations on Capacities
13.10 Load Testing
13.11 Pier Settlement
13.12 Excel Workbook
13.13 Combined Foundations – Shallow and Deep
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References on Shallow Foundations
References on Deep Foundations
References on Load Testing of Deep Foundations
References Associated with the Osterberg Load Cell
14 Slope Stability 165
14.1 Workbook Program Slope – Slope Stability by Bishop’s Modified Method of Slices
14.2 Workbook Program STABR – Slope Stability by Bishop’s Modified Method of Slices
14.3 Workbook P
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15 Seepage Flow through Porous Media
15.2 Program Input – from Data file
15.3 Program Output – to Data File
15.4 Input Data Description
15.5 Output Data Description
15.6 Example 172
15.7 Significant Aspects of Excel Workbook and VBA Macro Program Construction
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References 175
16 Beam-on-Elastic Foundation
16.1 Theory–Classical Differential Equation Solution
16.2 Beam–Bar Finite Element Model
16.3 Soil Strength – Coefficient of Vertical Subgrade Reaction
16.4 Structural Stiffness
16.5 Soil–Structure Interaction
16.6 Unbalanced Fixed-End Moment from Triangular Load Distribution
16.7 Pressure Distribution
16.8 Solution Exclusively in Excel Worksheet without VBA
16.9.1 Example 16.1a Triangular Point Loads on Foundation; Example 16.1b Triangular Distributed Loads on Foundation
16.9.2 Example 16.2a Crusher Mat Point Loads – PFrame Solution; Example 16.2b Crusher Mat Point Loads – Excel Solution
16.9.3 Example 16.3 SSI Data Generation Model
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17 Footings andMat Foundations
17.1 Mat Foundations
17.2 Slab Section Stiffness and Moment Capacity
17.3 Soil–Structure Interaction
17.4 Practical Considerations Regarding Slab Reinforcement
17.4.1 Advantages of Steel Reinforced Slabs
17.4.3 Sizing Steel for Temperature and Shrinkage and Subgrade Movement
17.4.4 Conclusions on Steel Reinforcement
17.4.5 Welded Wire Reinforcing
17.4.6 Post-tensioned Structural Slabs
17.5 Case Study – House Slab Foundations in Tucson, Arizona
17.6 Example 17.1 House Slab
17.6.1 Input Data
17.6.2 Results
17.6.3 Conclusions
18 Laterally Loaded Piles
18.1 Theory – Classical Differential Equation Solution
18.2 Conventional Analysis
18.3 Beam–Bar Finite Element Solution
18.3.1 Pier Support Conditions
18.3.2 Pier Loadings
18.3.3 Beam Representation of Pier
18.3.4 Spring (Bar) Representation of Soil
18.3.5 Input DataWorkbook for General Configurations
18.4 Structural Stiffness
18.5 Soil Strength
18.5.1 Coefficient of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction Values
18.6 Soil–Structure Interaction
18.7 Soil Pressures on Each Side of Pier
18.7.1 Allocation of Soil Resistance to Passive and Active Soil States
18.7.2 Representing Soil Resistance by the One-Spring Model
18.7.3 Representing Soil Resistance by the Two-Spring Model
18.8 Limitations of a Beam–Bar Analysis
18.9 Design Procedure
18.10 Solution Exclusively in Excel Worksheet without VBA
18.11 Point of Fixity
18.12 Pile Groups
18.13 Conclusions
18.14 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet and VBA Macro
18.15 Examples
18.15.1 Example 18.1 ADOT Lateral Load Test
18.15.2 Example 18.2 Concrete Pier
18.15.3 Example 18.3 Timber Pile
18.15.4 Example 18.4 Concrete Pier 2 Soils
18.15.5 Example Concrete Pier of Bent done by Three Approaches
18.15.6 Example 18.6 Bridge Bent with Piers
18.15.7 Example 18.7 Concrete Pier
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19 Cantilevered and Anchored Sheet Piles
19.1 Cantilevered Sheet Piles
19.2 Beam–Bar Finite Element Model for Cantilevered Piles
19.3 Anchored Sheet Piles
19.4 Beam–Bar Finite Element Model for Anchored Sheet Piles
19.5 Soil Strength Representation
19.6 Examples
19.6.1 Example 19.1 Cantilevered Sheetpile
19.6.2 Example 19.2 Anchored Sheetpile with Tie Rod
19.6.3 Example 19.3 Anchored Sheetpile-Rowe Calcs
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Further Reading 231
20 Buried Arch Culverts (Tunnels)
20.1 Theory: Classical Elasticity Formulation – Burns and Richard Solution
20.2 Soil–Structure Interaction
20.3 Beam–Bar Finite Element Frame Model
20.3.1 Frame with Spring Arch Culvert Model
20.3.2 Coefficient of Lateral Subgrade Reaction
20.4 Vertical Loads
20.4.1 Multiple Presence of LL
20.5 Distributing and Attenuating Vertical Live Loads
20.5.1 Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis of Arch
20.5.2 In the Transverse Direction
20.5.3 Determination of pv and ph from Line Load
20.6 Horizontal Ko Pressure Load
20.7 Load Application
20.8 General Elasticity FEA Programs
20.9 SSI
20.10 Cracked-Section Considerations
20.10.1 Cracked-Section Properties
20.11 Examples
20.11.1 Example 20.1(a) ArchSlab-LatSprDispLimit LL; (b) Arch-Slab-JtLd& SprngLimit LL
20.11.2 Example 20.2 ArchCOW-28
20.11.3 Example 20.3 ArchFtg-28
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References 245
21 The Arch Form
21.1 History of Arches and Vaults
21.2 Arch-Shaped Configurations
21.2.1 Circular, Elliptical, Parabolic, and Catenary Shapes
21.2.2 Inglis Equation for Spandrel-Filled Arch
21.2.3 Segmented Arch Shapes
21.3 Force Determination for Various Shaped Arches
21.3.1 Parabolic Arch Solution Using Leontovich Equations
21.4 Arch Engineering Considerations
21.5 Structural and Hydraulic Efficiency
21.6 Soil–Structure Interaction
21.7 Flexible versus Rigid Structures
21.8 Failure Patterns and Deflections
21.9 Load Tests
21.10 Design Comments
21.10.1 Box Culverts
21.10.2 Footings and Slabs
21.10.3 Wall Sections
21.11 Buckling of Arches
21.12 Seismic Design Considerations
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22 Domes
22.1 Geometry 265
22.2 Membrane Stresses
22.3 Stress Computations Using Worksheet Dome
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23 Critical Path Method
23.1 Project Scheduling
23.2 VBA Versions 270
24 Financial Analysis
24.1 Equations Governing Financial Operations
24.2 Excel Worksheets for Financial Calculator and Formulas
24.3 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet and Macro Functions
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25 Conversion of Units of Measurement
25.1 Unit Systems
25.2 Defined Units
25.3 Labeling Conventions
25.4 Workbook UnitCnvrsn
25.6 Example
25.6.1 Example: ksf (1000 lb/ft2) to Pascals
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Observaciones   2012   Texto en Ingles
Medidas    17x24
Paginas     312
Precio      107,00 Euros